for Vinyl Records
A good sounding master for CD production may not
be a good master for Vinyl Record pressing because of
limitations that are specific to vinyl records.
The information provided below is for reference purposes
only and Precision Disc is not responsible for the
manner in which you apply this information to your
project or for the subsequent results. For those who are
not experienced with the mastering requirements for
vinyl records we strongly suggest you work with an
RETURN TO VINYL RECORDS 'HOME' ]
- Try not to exceed
the maximum recommended playing lengths per side, as
longer playing times will lead to a decrease in
recording level and dynamics.
Standard playing times for vinyl records as supplied
by Precision Disc are as follows:
» 7" vinyl at 45 rpm : 4.5 minutes per side
» 7" vinyl at 33.3 rpm: 6 minutes per side
» 12" vinyl at 33.3 rpm: 22 minutes per side
(including gaps between songs)
While creating 7" vinyl formats at 33.3 rpm is an
option, the possibilities of the recording and
reproduction are most limited at this format. If
there is no other solution you have to take into
account that the audio quality of the final
product could be in some way compromised - this
is because low groove speed limits the recording
level and causes a greater decrease of the high
frequencies into the middle of the record and can
also cause higher distortion levels. Due to these
limitations EQ and Level could be affected.
- All bass frequencies
must be centered (below 150 Hz). Phase issues in the
bass frequencies can cause a collapse of the groove,
causing a skip.
- Tame sibilance. Too
much sibilance will cause distortion on playback.
This should be addressed at the mix level for best
results. Additional de-essing during the
pre-mastering stage and cutting process may be
- Avoid excessive high
frequencies. Excessive frequencies above 15 kHz can
- Do not boost
frequencies above 10 kHz.
- Try to avoid using
psycho acoustic processors to an excessive degree.
- If your recording
substantially differs from natural sounds, which is
caused by spreading out the energy in the acoustic
zone, there is a risk of audible changes to the
sound during the transcription. This is due to the
limitations of mechanical recording processes and
example be caused by singing adjusted by processors
or electronically generated effects.
- Do not "clip"
waveforms. This technique is often used in CD
mastering to achieve a hot level, can translate to
distortion when cut. If a re‐cut is requested on a
record cut with clipped audio, it will be fully
- Avoid too much
limiting. Too much brick wall limiting can cause
distortion in the cut. Re-cuts requested due to
distortion on material that has been excessively
brick walled will incur additional costs if not
resolved before manufacturing.
- A distorted master
will likely sound more distorted when transferred to
vinyl. Watch the distortion on the mix.
- Keep in mind that
due to the limitations of vinyl, by the time you
reach the inside of a 12” record the frequency
response is down ‐3db at 15 kHz. Sequence your
master accordingly. It is best to put quiet songs or
ballads on the inside. Try to avoid sequencing the
loudest song as the last track.
- Supply your audio on
CDR conforming to the standard 16 bit 44.1 kHz
standards. Audio not supplied to standard may be
rejected or incur additional charges.
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Disc Manufacturing Corp.
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